In May 2020, non-essential services reopened for trading. New Zealand moved from Level 4 to Level 3 on 27 April 2020 and the drop down to Level 2 happened on 13 May 2020. The “new normal” at Level 1 started on 9 June 2020.
Because of the Government assistance that has been provided to businesses, we anticipate that the economic effects of the Lockdown will be seen over a longer period of time than in previous economic slowdowns. Many businesses experienced a surge in trading activity when they reopened at Level 3 and another spike in revenue at the start of Level 2 but few businesses have seen consistent revenue week on week since reopening.
The budget announcement was made on 14 May 2020 and further support measures for businesses were also announced in May 2020. Some economists are now predicting that the coming recession will be deeper, and the economic recovery will be longer, than Treasury’s current forecasts. Many SMEs that have been taking a “wait and see” approach are hoping that further Government financial support will continue to be made available and that that support will be enough to allow their revenue to return so that their businesses can survive in the medium term.
So how have New Zealand’s May 2020 company insolvency figures shaped up as the country moved down the alert levels?
There were 104 company insolvency appointments in May 2020, which is roughly 50% lower than the appointments in May 2019 (193) and May 2018 (204).
Insolvency appointments to May 2020 total 597, which are 26% fewer than 2019 (806) and 35% fewer than in 2018 (923).
The personal insolvency figures for May 2020 have not yet been released by the Government. In both May 2019 and May 2018, there was an increase in the number of personal insolvencies when compared to April and June of the same years.
Since the beginning of 2018, month on month, the proportion of people entering into the No Asset Procedure (for those with up to $50,000 in debt, no assets, and no ability to repay their debts) and those being made bankrupt has been fairly evenly split. If the corporate insolvency figures increase as predicted, we expect that bankruptcies will make up a larger proportion of the personal insolvencies going forward. We anticipate that corporate insolvency rates will increase before personal insolvency rates do, as many creditors do not call upon personal guarantees until after a company has failed.
The Government assistance for businesses announced to date has contributed to the low number of insolvencies in the year to date. Once that financial assistance has been depleted, most will feel the recession start to bite. In preparation, businesses should be evaluating their revenue forecasts and looking at reducing their overheads and streamlining their businesses so that they are in the best position they can be moving forward.
There will be opportunities ahead for those in a position to take advantage of them. Those that are not currently taking active steps to prepare for the future risk waiting too long.
In the last few weeks, we have seen an increase in the number of clients who are moving away from the “wait and see” approach and have decided to actively prepare for the months ahead. We are currently assisting clients in a number of different industries to address the vulnerabilities they are seeing in their businesses. The earlier these concerns are acknowledged and addressed, the more options businesses have to deal with these issues.
There has been a lot of commentary around what the COVID-19 global pandemic is doing to countries’ economies. Some economists are predicting a global economic downturn to be the worst recession since the Great Depression and most are expecting this downturn to be worse than the GFC.
Today, 14 May 2020, New Zealand is moving from Level 3 to Level 2 and a lot of businesses are re-opening for the first time since the Level 4 lockdown came into effect seven weeks ago. In the weeks and months ahead, we will find out what effect the lockdown has had, so now would be a good time to look at the NZ insolvency figures to April 2020 and how those figures compare to the last couple of years.
Today is also budget day and Jacinda Ardern has signalled that the government will be spending to support businesses and keep people connected to their jobs.
Between 1 January 2020 and 31 March 2020, there were 269 formal insolvency appointments. Appointments were well down over this period when compared to the same periods in 2019 (454 appointments) and 2018 (559 appointments).
In April 2020, there were 54 appointments, which was less than a third of the number of appointments in April 2019 (160) and April 2018 (150).
When the April 2020 figures are added to the previous months, insolvency appointments in the year to date are down by roughly 50% when compared to April 2019 and April 2018.
As at 30 April 2020, there were 652,033 companies registered on the Companies Register.
Many people will be feeling the financial impact of COVID-19. Many have lost their businesses and/or their jobs. The number of people on a benefit has increased, as has the number of people receiving food parcels.
The number of bankruptcies between January 2020 and March 2020 are similar to the same period in 2019 (268 and 281 respectively). The number of bankruptcies in 2018 was roughly 33% higher over this period.
The number of bankruptcies in April 2020 dropped to 50, of which 80% were debtor applications, which is a significant decrease in the number of bankruptcies when compared to March 2020 as well as April 2019 and April 2018. The decrease in creditor applications was probably because the Courts were operating at reduced capacity so creditor's applications were held off. In April 2019 and 2018, roughly 73% of the 109 bankruptcies were debtor applications.
We expect to see both company and personal insolvency numbers start to increase, especially in the second half of 2020.
The Government’s 12 week Wage Subsidy scheme is approaching its end, and many are now looking at whether they can access the next stage of support via the Small Business Cashflow (Loan) Scheme (SBCS) available from 12 May 2020 Link Here
The announcements made in today’s budget are likely to provide further targeted stimulus probably for infrastructure and tourism, as the country's balance sheet is not limitless. We will need to wait and see what those announcements and the timing of further spending are...
We hope that for the many business owners and employees returning to work today their day is productive and safe. Day by day we will all need to deal with the effects the lockdown has had on our businesses and the ability to restart, especially those who have not been trading at all, and will now need to look at how to deal with seven weeks of expenses and no income over that period.
As a firm we have been working through these situations with a range of clients for the last few weeks. There are many ways to address those issues.
With the upheaval being caused to many SMEs by the Covid-19 lockdown and the potential for many of those SMEs to fail, the risk to people who have provided personal guarantees (PG’s) for company debts increases.
The support packages for companies being provided by the Government and the major trading banks is good news for the employees, because of the 12-week wage subsidy package, and for those businesses that can meet bank lending requirements to access the business finance guarantee scheme or possibly can use the debt hibernation and tax packages.
But the position for those companies that have other significant overheads and possibly were loss making startups or were already struggling, and for the individuals involved with those companies that have personally guaranteed some of the company obligations, the picture is not so bright.
It is expected that some creditors will make demand on individuals for payment of those company debts, pursuant to their PG’s, and, in the event the debt is not paid, proceed to bankrupt the individual concerned.
If the holders of PG’s or sole (unincorporated) traders end up being bankrupted, or declaring bankruptcy, due to the financial impact of the lockdowns largely through circumstances and decisions outside of their control, the current repercussions are, in our opinion, too harsh.
We would support a new personal insolvency regime that allows those bankrupted (say a Covid class) that can reasonably show the bankruptcy arose from Covid 19’s impact, be given a clean slate alongside an agreed reasonable repayment plan for the personal debts over time (potentially managed by responsible third parties) so that those people are:
- Not impacted further;
- Not consigned to the unemployment lines or pushed into the “black economy”;
- Able to access credit
- Able to open bank accounts
- Able to restart in business
Reducing the prospect of bankruptcy the below packages have been and remain available.
There are some companies who have applied for and received the 12-week wage subsidy for their staff that will not survive through the 12 week period and will be placed into liquidation.
The subsidy was provided so that staff could be retained to enable businesses to continue post lockdown. So, what happens if that doesn’t occur?
We understand that individual employees who received the wage subsidy payments will not be asked to pay any of those funds back, but what about the company and the directors involved who signed the declaration confirming employment for 12 weeks and best endeavours to provide ongoing employment? Will the directors be personally liable under the scheme for those funds?
MSD have advised that on liquidation, if the Liquidators cannot retain the staff, then they can use the subsidy to pay out employee entitlements (i.e. notice period) and any surplus funds should be returned to MSD. The wage subsidy cannot be used to pay out any redundancy obligations in an employee’s employment contract.
The wage subsidy, although providing some relief, doesn’t cover the other on-going expenses of the company that may be continuing whilst in lockdown such as rent, insurance, ACC payments, hire purchase payments and finance payments and interest.
Those amounts will continue to accrue, some with penalties being incurred for non-payment and many, such as rent, hire purchase and finance payments will in all likelihood, be covered by personal guarantees.
This provides for extra finance to be provided by the trading banks to eligible companies with the Government carrying 80% of the risk and the bank 20%. The bank will still be in the position of deciding whether or not a company is worth lending to but, with the bank carrying 20% of the risk it is to be expected that their lending criteria will continue to be enforced.
The loans have to be repaid in the normal manner, according to the terms agreed to and will, in all likelihood, be covered by a General Security over the company’s assets and either a pre-existing or new personal guarantee. So, what happens if the company fails before the loan is repaid?
Does the bank have to try and recover the full amount owing under the loan in the usual fashion – firstly from the company concerned and, if necessary, from the guarantors before it can call on the Government for its 80%? That appears to be the case.
An article published by Simon Thompson on Linkedin on 21 April 20 “How Does the NZ SME Loan Guarantee Scheme Measure Up To Others?” read here he comments “The simplistic property based focus will not be enough and their [the banks] blanket catch-all personal guarantees discourage applications.”
The article further suggests “An alternative model is to have a limited personal guarantee whereby the SME owners are only liable for the debt if there has been fraud or theft of funds from the business. The SMEs must pledge that the finance will be used exclusively for business purposes and that personal drawings will be no higher than in previous periods or as per a business plan.” And “The personal guarantee, if it is applied, should also be capped at 20% of the loss, as the UK model allows. The NZ Government already guarantees 80% of the risk under this scheme, while the bank takes 100% of the profit from the loans and has just 20% risk. Surely under that environment special conditions should apply.”
The following table developed by Mr Thompson compares the loan schemes in NZ, Australia and UK:
There are a wide range of proposed tax changes including;
• Depreciation on assets for some classes of assets
• Not charging UOMI on new debt
• Temporary loss carry back scheme
• Possible Permanent Removal of loss continuity provisions for the 20/21 period – discussion later in 2020, could be enacted before March 2021.
Tax payments arrangements can be modified by agreement if the taxpayer can show they have been significantly adversely affected and “income or revenue has reduced as a consequence of Covid-19 and as a result is unable to pay taxes in full on time. The key is to interact with IR as soon as practicable to agree to an arrangement to pay at the earliest opportunity.
The support packages provide somewhat of a life line for businesses that were viable before the Covid-19 lockdown and will be able to recover once “normal” (what ever that is like) trading resumes, but for those companies that were already struggling and cease operating, Covids impact and the support packages could become a millstone around the neck of the directors, and others, who have provided personal guarantees.
It is important that individuals who have provided personal guarantees and may be exposed to claims against their personal assets, seek independent advice from their professional advisors before taking any actions that might increase that risk and the level of exposure.
The Government is introducing legislation to change the Companies Act to help businesses facing insolvency due to COVID-19 to remain viable, with the aim of keeping New Zealanders in jobs.
The temporary changes are outlined here
A safe harbour is granted to directors of solvent companies, who in good faith consider they will more than likely be able to pay its debts that fall due within 18 months. This would rely on trading conditions improving and/or an agreed compromise with creditors. It essentially provides certainty to third parties of an exemption from the Insolvent transaction regime.
The changes allow directors to retain control and encourage directors to talk to their creditors and will if needed enable businesses which satisfy some minimum criteria to enter into a debt hibernation scheme with the consent of creditors.
The following article on the Company Law changes released by Martelli McKegg provides more detail read here
Directors considering trading on their company need to be careful and cautious and should have their decisions supported by accounts as at 31 December 2019 (as a minimum), and reliable cashflow projections. Companies that cannot satisfy the solvency test at 31 December 2019 or pre Covid-19 impacts should not be advancing a debt hibernation scheme and directors of those companies will not have protection from S135 and S136 claims.
Insolvent companies that are now facing further financial harm as a result of the lockdown should be seriously considering ceasing to trade and entering into either a formal company compromise under Part XIV of the Companies Act 1993, liquidation, or in some cases voluntary administration. The options depend on the viability of the business.
We consider directors of companies on the brink of insolvency should seek independent advice on whether the company meets the debt hibernation criteria and as a minimum we would recommend that financial accounts are being prepared now to 31 December 2019 along with forward looking cashflow projections to support the decision to trade. We expect creditors being asked to vote will require that sort of information to be available. We urge directors to get their Chartered Accountants involved.
Directors need to be aware that the safe harbour provisions may not protect you. For example, if your company has not been able to meet a statutory demand immediately pre-covid, then your company may be deemed insolvent.
The McDonald Vague team offer the following services as a cost-effective and efficient form of employer assistance in these challenging times.
It has been widely predicted that the effect of Covid-19 on businesses, and the individuals involved with those businesses as owners and employees, is going to be widespread. Despite the Government support rolled out to date, many are worried about possible redundancies and the predicted failure of many businesses.
In this article we look at what can be done to survive the lockdown, what effect the lockdown could have on new insolvency appointments during the lockdown period, and what the flow on effects could be, once the lockdown ends. We will also consider the opportunities available to businesses so that they survive the lockdown.
The Government and banks have provided avenues of financial support for individuals and companies to help get through this initial lockdown period.
The government packages are primarily designed to assist businesses to be able to maintain contact with staff by payment of a level of wages to staff, who would otherwise be made redundant, and keep those employees available so that the business can continue once the lockdown ends. If you are considering staff redundancies to reduce your outgoings over the lockdown period, we strongly urge you to speak to your lawyers before taking any restructuring steps, especially if the business has received the Government Wage Subsidy. The government has been very clear that it expects all of the wage subsidy to be passed to employees. The only exception is when an employee’s normal weekly wage exceeds the wage subsidy in which case the normal wage should be paid.
Other Government measures put in place include tax relief in relation to provisional tax and depreciation allowances.
The retail banks have also agreed to a six-month principal and interest payment holiday for mortgage holders and small business customers whose incomes have been affected.
The Government and banks have also put a business finance guarantee scheme in place for small and medium sized business (annual revenue between $250k and $18 million) to further protect jobs, cashflow and support the economy. The Government will take 80% of the risk on this lending and banks the other 20%. These loans are available to business that, but for the effects of Covid-19, were solvent and viable businesses. The banks retain the ability to decide who will be able to get the loans under the system.
Business owners also need to talk to their bankers and financial advisors to see what options are available to them, both in relation to taking out new loans and taking advantage of refinancing options and repayment holidays on existing business and personal lending.
Now is the important time for business owners to look closely at cashflow and the on-going costs their business faces during the lockdown period to see what, if any, reductions can be made. For example, some leases include “no access” provisions, which provide for the tenant to pay a fair proportion of the rent and outgoings during the no access period. We have also seen instances where landlords have agreed to reduced rental payments in leases without a “no access” clause. If your business cannot use its premises and have not already spoken to your landlord, we suggest that you speak to your landlord. The Government signalled on 1 April 2020 it was considering intervening, and that an announcement could be a couple of days away.
We have noted that many debtors and creditors and contracting parties have between themselves been reaching pragmatic arrangements around payments. Negotiating these sorts of arrangements is encouraged. Please be sure that when they are being negotiated that you allow yourselves enough time and money after the lockdown to be able to meet critical obligations and to start up, as it could easily be months after lockdown before business returns to normal. The arrangements agreed need to be documented.
Please also be certain that you haven’t overcommitted, or, committed the same money to many parties.
Now more than ever working with your advisers around cashflow and any other issues is important.
Try also to use this time to try to resolve the disputes and niggly issues that sit around (sometimes in the background) in all businesses. Having those out of the way will assist you with focussing on the restart when it occurs.
And look after yourselves. Talk things through. Get some advice. You could find you remove some stress from this very difficult period. Get some rest. Smile once in a while.
If, despite the support available, you doubt your business will survive, or restart, give your adviser, or us a call to discuss your options.
If what you need is time to pay your creditors, a formal compromise or putting the company into Voluntary Administration (VA) might help your business make it through the lockdown.
Compromises with company creditors allows creditors to agree to accept payment of their outstanding debt in part or in full, usually over a period of time, on the basis that they will receive more under the compromise than they would if the company was liquidated.
For some businesses, Voluntary Administration (VA) might be a better option. The aim of the VA is to maximise the chances of the company, or its business, continuing in existence with the help of the administrators and so provide a better return to creditors and shareholders than from an immediate liquidation.
If a compromise or VA are not realistic options for your company, we can talk to you about putting your company into liquidation by shareholder resolution. If your business does not carry out an essential service, appointing liquidators could help alleviate your immediate stress. While some steps can be taken by the liquidators immediately, we anticipate that any asset recoveries will not occur until after the lockdown restrictions are eased.
These need to be managed along with business obligations. For many small businesses the two go hand in hand.
Just as company compromises are possible, personal compromises are also an option for those that have the ability to pay their creditors over time but need some immediate breathing room. If your company is struggling, you are personally exposed if your company fails because you have given personal guarantees, and you have funds or access to funds that would not be available if you were made bankrupt, you can put forward a compromise to creditors under Part 5 Subpart 2 of the Insolvency Act 2006. This is an alternative to bankruptcy that aims to provide your creditors with a better result than bankruptcy and, if the proposal succeeds, you and your creditors will be bound by the proposal.
At McDonald Vague, we hope that the message of “we are all in it together” will send that message of providing support and kindness in this difficult time.
Court Appointments and Process
We do not expect that there will be Court appointed liquidations during the lockdown period, except in exceptional circumstances, as the Courts are now restricted in the types of cases they can hear to those that affect the liberty of the individual, the personal safety and wellbeing of citizens, and/or where resolution of issues raised by proceedings is time critical.
We anticipate that some unpaid suppliers may feel obliged to put pressure on customers during the lockdown because they are under pressure (the domino effect). If you are under pressure and are considering issuing a statutory demand to a customer, we urge you to speak to your lawyers, as validly serving the statutory demand may be an issue. As the Court Registry is still open, we expect that creditors will still be able to file liquidation proceedings relying on statutory demands served prior to the lockdown (provided those proceedings are filed within 30 working days of the statutory demand expiring).
Meetings During Lockdown
The Companies Act 1993 provides that creditors’ meetings can be held by audio, or audio visual communication, as long as all creditors participating can simultaneously hear each other throughout the meeting. While the Act requires written notice of the meeting to be given to creditors, we anticipate that, in most instances, all creditors will be able to be notified of any creditors’ meeting by email. In most cases, we anticipate that, with some additional effort, creditors’ meetings could still be notified to creditors and held during the lockdown period.
Risks to Directors
In the event of a company failure, regardless of when it occurs, the actions of the directors are reviewed by the company’s liquidators. Directors who breach their directors’ duties, including in relation to insolvent or reckless trading, could face claims against them if the company’s directors ignored the company’s dire financial position or they did not act quickly enough to stop the company’s indebtedness to creditors increasing after the company became insolvent.
We consider that any review of a director’s recent actions, taken since Covid-19 impacted the business, would need to be taken into account but directors could still be held accountable for breaching their duties if they have not exercised the care, diligence and skill that a reasonable director would exercise in the same circumstances.
The initial Level 4 lockdown period of 4 weeks could be extended further. When the lockdown level decreases, it is unlikely that business will return to our previous “normal” quickly. Some economic consultants are suggesting that it could take 18 to 24 months to recover but it could be quicker or slower than that depending on the success or otherwise of the lockdown action.
As we emerge to our “new normal”, there will be new challenges. We are here to assist, as and where we can.
The start-up period could be as difficult as the close down. Cash flow is almost certainly going to be tight for the first weeks and months after restart. The ability to meet rent and employee obligations is going to be tested in many businesses unless you have used the time and options to get cashflow in order.
If you don’t think your pre-Covid-19 business can survive the effects of Covid-19, give us a call to discuss your options. There may steps you can take now that will allow you to reinvent your business after the lockdown ends.
As always, there will also be new business opportunities that come out of the lockdown. If you are looking at starting a new business, talk to us. We can suggest a few simple steps that you can take when setting up your new business to protect your investment into the future.
Covid-19 means that business owners and employees are facing unprecedented challenges at the moment.
The Government and retail banks are providing a range of financial assistance packages to try to ease the current burden and allow businesses to survive and, hopefully, prosper when things get back to normal. Unfortunately, even with those packages and, hopefully, the goodwill of New Zealanders, significant business failures and job losses are still predicted.
Business owners need to be reviewing their business models, talking to their banks, industry organisations, key debtors and creditors, and trusted advisors about how they can best survive the turmoil or, if they do not believe that they have the ability to carry on, to an Accredited Insolvency Practitioner about the options available to them. If you need help, call us on 0800 30 30 34 or 027 359 0823 or reach out to one of our team.
As it is in all areas of business, when you are seeking advice or input on insolvency matters it is important to go to the right source.
There are lawyers and accountants that specialise in insolvency but, depending of the circumstances, and what you are looking to achieve, who you choose is important.
Under the current legislation, the Companies Act 1993, anyone, without conflict of interest, and with a few other exceptions, can take an appointment as an Insolvency Practitioner and be appointed as liquidator or receiver of a company. They do not have to have any formal qualification and do not have to be registered or subject to any particular code of conduct. This situation is likely to change with current law changes being considered but for the time being the current provisions of the Companies Act apply.
So both lawyers and accountants can be appointed as liquidators or receivers and can be referred to as Insolvency Practitioners.
There are also Insolvency Practitioners who may be neither a lawyer or an accountant, who can also be appointed as liquidators or receivers.
Generally speaking, there are two ways that a business could be involved with an insolvency matter – either as a creditor seeking to recover a debt, or as the business owners deciding on a course of action because of the financial situation the business is in. The information or advice you would need from a lawyer and / or an accountant is different in each case.
If you are a creditor of a business that has failed to pay its debts as they fall due, you may decide to take action to have the debtor company liquidated.
To do this, we recommend you consult a lawyer experienced in the insolvency field to prepare statutory demands for service on the debtor company and, in due course, to prepare and file the application in the High Court to have the debtor company liquidated.
The lawyer will, prior to the matter being heard in Court, obtain the written consent of Insolvency Practitioner(s), to be appointed,
If you are a director/shareholder of a debtor company that has been served with a statutory demand or liquidation proceedings, you may want to consult with an insolvency practitioner to gain an understanding of your rights and obligations and the options that are available to you.
Many of the insolvency practitioners practicing in New Zealand have formal accounting qualifications or accounting backgrounds. This is understandable given that a lot of the work carried out by insolvency practitioners involves the review and analysis of accounting information.
IP's often then engage lawyers. Some of the larger accounting firms will have an insolvency practice as part of their firm’s structure. McDonald Vague, are Chartered Accountants specialising in business recovery and insolvency
If you are the shareholders or director of an insolvent company, your business accountants, who prepare your annual financial reports etc, may identify the fact that you are technically insolvent but, under those circumstances, they cannot be appointed as liquidator of your company. You would need to appoint an independent insolvency practitioner.
Accreditation for insolvency practitioners acknowledges IPs with appropriate experience. The main benefit is, accredited IPs are subject to the code of ethics, CAANZ rules and standards, CPD, practice review and a disciplinary body. If the practitioner is a CA and accredited, the designation is CAANZ accredited IP, whereas a non-CA but member of RITANZ is RITANZ IP Accredited by CAANZ. Dealing with an accredited practitioner provides more assurance to the appointor that the appropriate actions will be taken.
Getting the right advice at the right time and from the right person can make a big difference to the final outcome in any given situation.
If you need legal advice in relation to an insolvency issue, then see a lawyer with expertise in that area of law.
If you need practical advice in relation to insolvency options and processes and the related accounting issues, then speak to an experienced insolvency practitioner.
The team at McDonald Vague are experienced and independent insolvency practitioners with the formal qualifications and experience to be able to provide good practical advice on your situation.
It is an unfortunate fact that many companies experience financial difficulties at times. Often the directors/shareholders do not realise that there are a number of options available to them. This article provides an overview of the various options for distressed companies.
A compromise is an agreement between a company and its creditors. The purpose is to enable a company to trade out of its financial difficulties and thus avoid administration, receivership or liquidation. In this way the company can survive into the future and provide continuing business to creditors.
There are two basic features of most compromises:
Usually, the directors of a company decide to allow the company to enter into a compromise, subject to creditor approval. Creditors will only approve if they believe that they will receive more money than in an administration, receivership or liquidation.
Compromises are governed by Part 14 of the Companies Act 1993. Each class of creditors affected must vote as a class. Classes can include trade creditors, landlords, employees for preferential wages and holiday pay, Inland Revenue for preferential GST and PAYE, hire purchase creditors and other secured creditors.
For a compromise to be approved, a majority in number representing 75% in value of each class of creditors must vote in favour of the proposal.
A creditor's compromise can be a good option for businesses that are fundamentally sound, but are experiencing financial difficulty.
Voluntary administration is a relatively new rehabilitation mechanism that was introduced into the Companies Act 1993 about seven years ago. An administrator may be appointed by a distressed company's directors, a secured creditor holding a charge over all or substantially all of the company's property, a liquidator or the Court.
The aim of voluntary administration is to maximise the chances of the company (or its business) continuing in existence, or if this is not possible, for creditors to receive a better return than in a liquidation. It is an interim measure during which creditors' rights to enforce charges, repossess assets or enforce guarantees are restricted. A General Security Agreement ("GSA") holder may, however, appoint a receiver within 10 working days of the administration commencing. It is therefore critical for the administrator to have the support of any GSA holders.
Once a company enters into voluntary administration the directors can only act with the written permission of the administrator. The administrator takes control of the company's business and has 25 working days to complete an investigation and provide an opinion on the most beneficial course of action for creditors. This will be one of three options:
A DOCA is an agreement between the company and its creditors. It is the responsibility of the deed administrator to ensure that the company adheres to the DOCA's terms and conditions.
A receivership appointment is made by a secured creditor who has been granted a General Security Agreement ("GSA") over the company's assets. The GSA holder is usually a financial institution or a private lender.
The conduct of receivers is governed by the Receiverships Act 1993. A receiver has control over the company's assets subject to the GSA under which they have been appointed. The receiver's primary purpose is to recover funds for the secured creditor, however, the receiver also has a duty to protect the rights of other creditors. The receiver provides reports on the conduct of the receivership to the secured creditor and files this report with the Companies Office.
The receiver ceases to act when the secured creditor has been repaid and at this time control of the company reverts to the directors. However, a liquidator can be appointed if there are further assets to be realised, funds still owed to unsecured creditors or matters requiring investigation.
When the directors/shareholders of an insolvent company become aware that there is no realistic ability to trade out of their financial difficulties they can resolve to appoint an insolvency practitioner of their choice as liquidator. This is known as a voluntary liquidation.
In instances where the directors/shareholders do not take any action, a creditor of the insolvent company may apply to the Court for an order requiring the company be put into liquidation. This is known as a Court appointed liquidation and it is the Court's decision as to who will be appointed as liquidator. If a company is served with a winding up application by a creditor, the directors/shareholders have 10 working days to put the company in voluntary liquidation.
The conduct of liquidators is governed by Part 16 of the Companies Act 1993. Once a company liquidation commences the director's powers are restricted and they must provide the company's records to the liquidator. They must also co-operate with and support the liquidator.
The liquidator's main duty is to realise assets belonging to the company and distribute the proceeds to creditors. The liquidator may also investigate the reasons for the company's failure, set aside insolvent transactions and take legal action where necessary. The liquidator must report to the company's creditors every six months and file these reports with the Companies Office.
Upon completion of the business liquidation the company is struck off the Companies Register.
Every situation is unique and a number of factors should be taken into consideration to determine the best course of action in the event of company insolvency. If you wish to discuss your situation please contact one of the team at McDonald Vague.
Alternatively, download our Free Guide to Insolvency Services